Posted by: soanstolaf | May 12, 2016

Success tips!

With summer just around the corner, I thought I’d compile some tips on how to really stand out and be successful at that summer internship or job some of us are preparing for… Some of these are pretty obvious, but are still good to keep in mind, while others are ones that might not be quite as obvious, but can really draw positive attention to you and may even help with a future promotion or a great letter of recommendation.

  1. Ask questions. I know, this one is pretty clichée, but it is one that many people may be reluctant to do.  You’re the new guy in the office, and so you don’t want to look like you don’t know what you’re doing. But, you’ll look far less foolish if you ask someone for a tutorial rather than being this guy:

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2. Be willing to put in all the time you need to to do your job correctly. Being there (a little) early and staying (a little) late will show your boss or supervisor that you’re dedicated and take pride in doing the best work you can do. That being said, do not live at work just to impress your boss. You’ll end up overworked and exhausted, and then you will not be able to function at your best.

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3. Act like a boss. Not in a conceited or snobby way, but make sure you’re always on time, dress professionally, and be prepared. You want people to say “Wow! I can’t believe that was an intern!” after they work with you.

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4. Network! Even if you’ve already landed a job, that doesn’t mean that you can be done making connections.  Pay attention to not only the higher-ups in the company, but also to your fellow interns or the other new hires. You never know which one of them could be a big help to you in your career later or who you may end up working with again.

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5. Give people your full attention.  Whenever you’re in a meeting or talking with a fellow coworker, make frequent eye contact and turn your body towards them to show you’re paying attention to them. Also, ask questions or paraphrase what they’re telling you so that they know you’re listening and comprehending what they’re talking about.  In addition to this, make sure that you aren’t constantly checking your phone or otherwise multitasking, as this makes you seem uninterested in what they’re saying.  It may seem like a little thing, but being known as a good and attentive listener will help build a positive reputation around the office for you, since people know you pay attention and will then get the job done.

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6. Make sure others know about your accomplishments.  This has to be done with a certain level of tact and finesse, otherwise people will think you’re just bragging.  Making sure others know what you’re capable of doing and providing examples of when you did extraordinary work in the past shows your coworkers and superiors that you’re able to take on a new project and do it in a way that will reflect positively on the company and your team.

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7. Be a problem solver.  Anybody can complain about things they don’t think are being done correctly, but not everyone will actually take it upon themselves to devise solutions to those problems. Being a problem solver will show that you care about the long-term success of the business in addition to your own career.

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8. Ask for and implement feedback that you receive.  It can be difficult to ask your superiors how your performance on the job is, but without that feedback, you will be unaware of what you can do to improve your work. In addition to this, you need to be able to handle constructive criticism without taking it personally.

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9. Avoid gossip. Make sure you know what is going on within the company as a whole, but do not use your break time as time to share all of the problems going on in the office with the rest of the staff. This makes it seem as if you’re looking for an audience rather than a solution.

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10. Don’t over-apologize. Certainly apologize when you genuinely mess up, but don’t apologize for inconsequential, unimportant, non-egregious errors.  Doing so can damage both your own self confidence and also the confidence others have in you.

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Posted by: soanstolaf | May 11, 2016

Musings about studying social life via social media

When I was at the Midwest Sociological Society conference over spring break this year, I was surrounded by hundreds of people who were studying so many different social phenomena. I learned about how atheist groups in Los Angeles take on social justice/do good-er personalities and they feel like they can be open about their disbelief in a higher power, whereas atheist groups in the rural south keep their beliefs hidden and mostly interact as a “Facebook group support system,” as religion/Christianity is so ingrained into the culture of the south. Two of my other favorite paper presentations were: 1) a comparison of the “Black Lives Matter” and the “Blue Lives Matter” Facebook pages and 2) a brief analysis of social activist campaigns, using social media.

I asked myself why I found these particular research presentations so fascinating. The first makes sense initially as religion is my favorite thing to study (in general, and from a SO/AN perspective), but the other common thread that runs through each of these studies is the fact that they have integrated social media platforms to study patterns of how people behave and interact on social media. This concept truly fascinates me — I have often wondered in my research courses here at St. Olaf, and as I have conducted interviews throughout the years, how honest of an opinion are we getting through this conversation? When we do “field work” in anthropology, the hope is that we are getting to the heart of why people do what they do, to see a totally unadulterated picture of how a culture functions. But how authentic of a picture do we really get? The thought of using social media platforms as evidence and a basis for understanding people’s perspectives and behaviors is extremely compelling to me.

It seems as though the same activities that mark our daily lives are also taking place online. We maintain relationships with long-distance friends and family through Facebook and Instagram. We can instigate thought-provoking discussions (or rants) about the ever (scarily) growing #TrumpTrain and other recent news. We shop online at Amazon and we market ourselves to potential employers via our LinkedIn profiles. We can even initiate relationships and find spouses from social media sites – I personally have a friend whose relationship started from a Facebook poke and they dated for almost four years! This is not necessarily to say that the online social world is a mirror image of how we act, but there are both some similarities (as mentioned previously) and key differences that make this field of study so alluring to me. For example, the big differences that I see that make it interesting:

  1. The conversations are largely public. Anyone can share their opinions and anyone can study those social interactions.
  2. Along with that, these interactions are measurable! We can actually see how people interact through their reactions to posts on Facebook (especially now that you can like, dislike, cry, laugh, be surprised), and you can count visitors and downloads. It just opens up a whole new level of quantitative evaluation in research!
  3. People feel a sense of anonymity and confidence when they share their opinions online, which makes it seem like we are more likely to be honest/candid when we’re communicating through a screen, rather than face-to-face. I feel like there’s so much that can be gleaned from interviewing people in person about a particular opinion (say, Trump 4 Prez) and then seeing how the people online interact and share their opinions about Trump.

In my Sociological Theory class last week, my group had the opportunity to apply social theorists Adorno & Horkheimer to the Vic Mensa concert and subsequent reactions. It was SO fascinating for me to analyze YikYak responses, Facebook posts by the Music Entertainment Committee, etc. Brief overview if you weren’t there: Vic Mensa performed at the St. Olaf Spring Concert; he sang a song he wrote in memory of Laquan McDonald, who was shot by a policeman 16 times, and laid down on the stage in solidarity; a bunch of people at the concert were disrespectful and yelled at him to “get up and sing”; the next morning, there were a bunch of posters all over Buntrock challenging students to think critically about Vic Mensa’s message because they had clearly not heard it the night before; and then a series of YikYaks and Facebook posts ensued. I won’t bore you with all of the details, but I will share a couple of the YikYaks with you just to see if anyone has any thoughts to share on how we can understand the impact of social media on our social interactions, and what that says about how we operate as a community of St. Olaf students.

Posted by: soanstolaf | May 5, 2016

What I’ve learned as a SOAN major by Kathryn Ravey

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In the past four years, I have slowly understood what it means to be a Sociology/Anthropology (SOAN) major. It hasn’t always been easy and there are things I am still woefully unsure about. However, this major has contributed so much to my heart, mind, and soul. It is an identity I gladly embody. Here are five of the most important things I have learned as a SOAN major. You will notice, as a good SOAN major, I have included some examples to support my claims (this is mainly for Tom!):

 People won’t always “get” you, and that’s okay

It seems the common “curse” of being a SOAN major is the constant criticism, misunderstanding, and labeling we are subjected to. I sometimes wonder if the great founders of Sociology and Anthropology were also victims of the relatives, friends, and citizens who rolled their eyes at the mention of social constructions and corrupt systems. I, for one, have had my fair share of snide remarks about my major. There will always be people who will label you as the radical, hippie socialist who will never get a job. But, as my dad always says, people are entitled to their opinions, no matter how wrong they are. However, it is not these comments that agitate me the most. Instead, it is the people who I see as part of the problem. Whether they are people who don’t believe in feminism or who want to slowly fade out the social sciences. As a SOAN major, I have learned to accept that these people will not always understand my ideas. But I can still act and strive to be heard. Perhaps changing systems requires one to lead by example, rather than by words (even though Marx had some wicked theories).

Judging will get you nowhere

I have spent my entire college career learning about the complexities behind people’s actions and choices. From drug addicts to murderers and from revolutionists to polygamists, I have studied people carefully. While I will never fully understand groups, cultures, or individuals, I have learned that there is always more depth than we grant them. Each and every person, group, and culture is composed of a “thick description,” as Clifford Geertz would say, and it is vitally important that one explores that description. Once one does that, it becomes very difficult to label that person, group, or culture as one particular thing. You learn that we are all a part of complex systems, structures, and webs that make up who we are and explain our relationships to the world. Making uninformed judgments is not only bad practice, but it will also not lead you to helpful conclusions about the world.

For example: Making a snide comment about that eccentric person at the shopping mall will bring nothing but joy to your own ego. Your judgment will bring you nowhere near understanding why that person is choosing to act in that way and will instead bring you closer to making a blanket statement about humans like “them.” This will only serve to restrict your view of the world and your capacity to foster acceptance and compassion.

It is essential to embrace the grey

All around me I see people desperately trying to make sense of things through categorization. “This person thinks this, thus, they are bad.” SOAN has taught me that those types of distinctions are almost never the case. In fact, almost everything we try to make sense of is muddled, complex, and incredibly frustrating. I’ve learned that almost nothing is black or white. It is all grey. When I first discovered this, I had the hardest time accepting it. I thought that accepting greyness was a justification for injustice, indecisiveness, and moral indifference. But what I’ve found is that embracing this greyness actually allows me to better understand complex problems facing society. It prevents me from placing people in boxes and forces me to see the interconnectedness of everything. It requires me to answer the question of how defining one person will ultimately define others. I have learned to take solace in knowing that all aspects and decisions of my life are grey, which has actually made my life much less stressful.

For example: We cannot ignore Trump supporters and claim that they are just a bunch of ignorant and racist people. They are not easily one thing. They believe what they do for a reason, and that reason must be carefully explored in order to unearth the origins and production of their mentality. We must look into the grey of their beliefs.

 The “You” must learn to bend

The SOAN major asks one to use everything within oneself, in order to empty oneself for others. In other words, the self one has always identified as, will not only be critically challenged, but will most likely result in the belief in a minimized self. When I first started learning about how my environment was socially constructed, I was struck with a disorienting relationship to reality. The things I had defined myself with were not truths within themselves, but rather relative to my culture, race, gender, class, etc. I then began to rebuild my sense of self through the pursuit of new truths. I believe I will be on this quest for the rest of my life. Yet, I have discovered a few things along the way. The self I am after is only meaningful when placed in the context of we. My destiny is interwoven with the destinies of others, and the more I realize this, the less important it is for me to find my own “self.” I have found that meaning lies in the humble presence of humanity that I do not lead, but joyfully participate in.

Hope is as essential as criticism

My education can be summed up as a study of why the world is incredibly screwed up. Almost every day the majority of my time has been spent on studying horrific societal realities, broken systems, sweeping oppression, and systematic inequality. I have definitely gained a massive amount of resilience through this practice. Although it is always heartbreaking, studying these things is not futile. It brings me one step closer to understanding how to fix these problems and prevent them in the future. However, this is only possible if one harbors hope. I believe one’s sense of hope must rival one’s despondency with the world’s injustices. While humans find themselves amidst war, famine, enslavement and poverty, humanity is also found amidst the quiet parties who choose not to ignore the abuse they see. I believe that as a SOAN major, I have chosen to take on the responsibility of fostering hope. Not the idealistic and optimistic hope that can be seen decoratively written on a boutique charm, but rather the kind of necessary hope that must be worn as armor in the battlefield of true awareness. It is my responsibility to meet my heartbreak with hope, to find solution in the criticisms, to provide love when presented with hate, and say in the name of all that is wrong “There will be a better tomorrow.”

Posted by: soanstolaf | April 21, 2016

About Ibtesam’s sabbatical

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Recently, I had the chance to interview Professor Ibtesam Al Atiyat about her experience doing research in Jordan, during which time she focused on body politics and the legal system in that country. Her research looked at three main topics: family law policies, honor killings, and rape. She was interested in the difference between how these three issues were described legally and how they actually played out in reality.

She began by giving me some background on her area of study and explained some of the different legal and cultural structures that frame the body in terms of politics relating to gender and sexuality.  This is what is meant by the term “body politics.”  She then outlined how the law and legal processes frame issues relating to family law, including marriage, divorce, and child custody.

She noted that Jordan is heavily influenced by postcolonial law, which is a type of hybrid legal system that combines local laws, Western legal practices, and postcolonial traditions. Historically, Islamic Sharia was a negotiable and interactive legal system, but after the laws were written in the style of the Western legal system, Islamic Sharia became more fixed and nonnegotiable. This prevents people from seeking multiple opinions on a legal issue, as they had been able to do before the time of colonialism. Islamic Sharia is clearly subject to time and space, and the impact of colonialism must be taken into account when studying how it is understood today. Civil law (including laws pertaining to theft, fraud, and murder) is separate from the facets of family law mentioned above. Islamic Sharia affects family law by dictating how those laws are constructed and currently understood.

Ibtesam then went on to tell me a bit more about the specific issues she wanted to study. First was honor killings, which she told me have prevalence in certain countries and are viewed by feminists in both the United States and in the Arab world as a priority issue. She wanted to learn how the law frames and regulates honor killings and also look at a sociological analysis of the law in relation to honor killings.  Honor killing, she explained, is not an ahistorical phenomenon that came into existence without context, nor is it merely an ancient practice that occurs in “underdeveloped” societies. Therefore, it is important to see honor killing as a modern phenomenon and not as an historical, outdated tribal practice.

In order to study rape, she interviewed women’s activists, parliamentarians, lawyers, politicians, and police in order to see how each group frames rape and deals with it. She told me about a recent debate in Jordan regarding the amendment of the penal code that governs rape and honor killings. However, the government’s attempt at reforming the penal code did not come out of the belief that the code was insufficient, but instead came from a demand by the World Bank and the IMF (International Monetary Fund). The government was complicit with the demand to reevaluate the penal code in order to further develop Jordan’s economy.

Women’s activism groups in Jordan demand the elimination of the current statutes regulating rape. There is one specific article within the law that defines rape as something that only happens to women; men are excluded from being considered victims of rape. And, according to the law, a rapist can be set free on the orders of a judge if he marries his victim.  If this were the only way that the law worked- in practice and on paper- it would be a double reward for the rapist, since he would get to rape a woman once, and would then be allowed to escape punishment-free after marrying her.

However, in her interviews with police, judges, lawyers, and women at shelters, Ibtesam found a difference in the way the law was written and the actual practice of it. There was a large difference between what the feminist groups identified as being problems and what happens in reality. The activists present the example of a 50-year-old man raping a 13-year-old girl and then being rewarded by marrying her.  While there could be a case like that, the majority of actual “cases” involve teenagers experimenting with sex.  Also, there are other “cases” where women will have consensual sex in order to force their parents to accept their lovers.  In that case, the women are not being oppressed by a law that forces them to marry their rapists, but instead are putting pressure back on their patriarchal families by finding ways to marry the men they love, and are able to find empowerment by using the law to their own advantage.

In cases of incest or pedophilia, judges are of course reserved in their decision to allow the rapist to marry his victim. This decision is treated on a case-by-case basis; there is no way a judge would allow a father to marry his daughter. Neither would he allow the theoretical 50-year-old man and the 13-year-old girl to be married. In cases like these, the legal punishments for rape would be enforced.

This issue therefore is much more complex than what the feminist discourse details. Some feminist activists say that the law allowing a rapist and his victim to marry should not exist on principal because it sets a bad precedence. However, their argument does not really capture the real issue and how the subject matter manifests in reality.

The law needs to change to include both men and women in the rape definition and allow for instances of consensual sex. Then, there should be harsher judgements in cases of actual rape. The wording of the law needs to capture the practices in reality.

From this research, Ibtesam now plans to work on a series of articles that will eventually turn into a book based on her three areas of study: family law, honor killings and rape.  When I asked if she saw any changes in the laws happening in the near future, she said she did not, because the feminist organizations are very influential within the government and in getting international funding. Their way of framing the subject matters around issues of cultural and religious oppression will win the attention of the government and funders. Since her research looks at the aforementioned issues in a more complex way than the current discourses produced by various feminist groups, it may take some time for her research to impact the attitudes of those who have the ability to influence discourse. She says that it is the attitudes of colonialism and postcolonialism that contribute to oppression more than religion and culture; if women and women’s issues are reduced to religion and culture, the complexity of such issues becomes lost and the discourse remains unchallenged.

It was abundantly clear during the time I spent talking with her just how passionate she is about her research.  These are important issues that should not be ignored or simplified, and I was amazed at how much thoughtful work she was able to accomplish in only one semester’s sabbatical time.  If you are interested in knowing more about what she did, just stop in and visit with her.

Posted by: soanstolaf | April 21, 2016

Jaylani Hussein’s visit

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On Wednesday, April 20th, Professor Marc David invited Jaylani Hussein to speak to the SOAN 399 Senior Seminar class and the St. Olaf community in general. Jaylani Hussein is the executive director of The Council of American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) Minnesota, a non-profit organization that addresses Islamophobic issues.

Jaylani’s family emigrated from Somalia to Minnesota in 1993. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Political Science and Community Development/City Planning and is currently pursuing a law degree. He has served on the board of directors for various community organizations in the Twin Cities, and is currently on the Advisory Council for U.S. Attorney B. Todd Jones. He has served as Secretary of the American Relief Agency for the Horn of Africa (ARAHA) Executive Board since 2004. He has traveled to the Horn of Africa twice on behalf of ARAHA, to open a regional field office as well as to oversee large-scale humanitarian projects in the Somali famine of 2011 (description retrieved from the CAIR website).

Jaylani spent a full, busy day with us at St. Olaf. He attended both SOAN 399 class sessions, had lunch with several senior students, led a Q&A session in the afternoon, and had a public lecture in the evening. Islamophobia is a critical issue to address in the post 9/11 era in which we live. We hear of “Muslim-looking” individuals being attacked, of people equating Islam with terrorism, of individuals asking Muslims why “they won’t just stop ISIS,” etc. The fact that Islamophobia is such a contemporary issue with dangerous real life repercussions makes Jaylani’s visit even more à propos.

Our guest speaker had a lot of important things to share with us. He told us more about the work of CAIR MN. CAIR is an advocacy group with 35 offices and chapters around the United States and in Canada. “Its mission is to enhance the understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding.”

Jaylani also discussed instances of Islamophic occurrences in Minnesota, in the United States in general, as well as in other countries like France. In class, he told us, for example, the story of a Somali Muslim student, whom because of her religious affiliation, was bullied by her fellow students in a high school in St. Cloud and was subsequently expelled for fighting back. CAIR had to intervene to make sure that the Muslim student did not get unfairly punished. As Jaylani explained, high schools are a perfect place to have conversations about social differences, religious, racial and otherwise. It is at that age that kids are more open to having these conversations and actually learning about respect and tolerance.

The problem of Islamophobia is not simply the prerogative of communities and schools. It also has to do with public policy making and civil rights. Jaylani discussed the CVE project in the afternoon Q&A session. CVE refers to Countering Violent Extremism, an anti-terrorism initiative by the U.S. Department of Justice. CVE “aims to deter U.S. residents from joining “violent extremist” groups by bringing community and religious leaders together with law enforcement, health professionals, teachers and social service employees.” There is a problem that arises with this CVE initiative, fueling a lot of opposition from communities in places where the project was carried out: “CVE discriminatorily targets the Muslim and Somali communities, increasing policing and intelligence gathering under the guise of providing social services.” The program instilled stigmatization, fear and mistrust toward law enforcement forces. The following articles provide some more information and insights on CVE and its repercussions.

TED Talk by Trevor Aaronson on U.S.-based terrorism and the role of the FBI:
https://www.ted.com/talks/trevor_aaronson_how_this_fbi_strategy_is_actually_creating_us_based_terrorists

Muslim groups speak against anti-terror program:
http://www.mprnews.org/story/2015/05/01/muslim-groups-speak-against-antiterror-program

The ‘Countering Violent Extremism’ program institutionalizes injustice against Somalis:
https://www.minnpost.com/community-voices/2015/05/countering-violent-extremism-program-institutionalizes-injustice-against-so

Minnesota Muslims Concerned About New ‘Stigmatizing, Divisive, and Ineffective’ CVE Pilot Program:
http://files.ctctcdn.com/bd15115b001/d068ad69-9ad8-46a0-bdcd-b9d57454ed20.pdf

California Muslim Groups Vote to Oppose Federal CVE Program, Cite Concerns About Stereotyping:
http://www.cair.com/press-center/press-releases/12876-california-muslim-groups-vote-to-oppose-federal-cve-program.html

Muslim Student Associations (MSAs) Oppose CVE:
http://www.journalofamerica.net/html/cve_program.html

Citing Civil Liberties Concerns, 48 Groups Oppose Countering Violent Extremism Act:
https://www.brennancenter.org/analysis/groups-oppose-passage-countering-violent-extremism-act-2015-citing-civil-liberties-concerns

Jaylani’s visit was highly informative and critically eye opening. When asked in class what we could do as liberal arts students to counter Islamophobia and ignorance he said “Reading and writing are your tools.” He encouraged us to keep reading (with our critical minds) about what is happening in the world and write about it in a personal journal or even to send to a local newspaper. Jaylani called this “making our own news.” He added that we do not have enough people reacting to all the “antis” in the world, anti-Islam, anti-women, etc. Having this silent majority or passive bystanders is really where the problem lies.

 

 

Posted by: soanstolaf | March 31, 2016

Midwest Sociological Society 2016

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Over Spring Break, SOAN students accompanied professor Ryan Sheppard and former professor Bruce Nordstrom-Loeb to Chicago to present research at the Midwest Sociological Society’s annual conference. The research that was presented was a combination of research completed in conjunction with qualitative and quantitative SOAN research classes and touched on a breadth of topics related to St. Olaf. In addition to presenting their research, students also attended paper sessions and panel discussions presented by sociologists in a variety of professions. Some of the paper sessions had titles such as, “Competing Narratives of Displacement: Ukrainian Refugees in Russian Press” and “Celebrity Activism and Symbolic Capital in Anti-Trafficking Campaigns.”

One of my favorite sessions talked about how Queer Theory and lived-experience come together in the lives of transgender people. Interestingly, one of the speakers at that session stated that, while the gender binary can be a very limiting and harmful thing for many people, it was a necessary tool in her transition. For her, staying gender-queer would have led to many people identifying her as a male, an identity she had been trying to escape for 40 years. This was very eye opening and allowed me to view the gender binary in a new way.

Another session discussed the lack of comprehensive law enforcement training when dealing with identifying victims of human trafficking. What this sociologist found was that current trainings for Texas law enforcement only focused on what she called a “perfect victim,” stereotype. This stereotype consists of a hyper focus on sex trafficking and of victims that fit the “girl-next-door” image. She found that vulnerable populations such as men and boys, LGBT youth, and ethnic minorities were not a significant part of victim recognition training. In fact, these populations were hardly represented in the training literature, after a content analysis was completed.

The group also took some time to visit a show, displaying photography by Professor David Schalliol. This event delved into the ability of architecture and space to shape the lives and environments of a society. After three incredibly insightful presentations by professor Schalliol and others, the conversation turned to the topic of photography as a vehicle for truth. The audience pondered questions about a camera’s inability to capture the photographer’s true intention and how the “truth” we perceive in a photo is actually a work of fiction. This brought about comments that deemed photography to be a way of seeking truth, rather than of defining it. It was stated that while a photographer brings their truth to a photo, it is how people inhabit a photographed space that allows them to bring their own truth to a space. Needless to say, the group was intrigued and overwhelmed by the many topics discussed that evening.

In addition to the intellectual and formal sessions the group attended, they were also able to take in many of the beautiful sights of Chicago. The group enjoyed group dinners, entertaining trivia sessions, and quality SOAN bonding time! It was definitely a very rewarding time for both the students and professors, and gave students greater insight into the realities of becoming a sociologist and the vast array of places their major could take them.

On behalf of all the students who attended the conference, I want to thank Professor Ryan Sheppard for all of her hard work in making this amazing opportunity possible! We cannot thank you enough for your dedication and effort, as it has greatly enhanced our education.

Here are some photos from the conference…

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Posted by: soanstolaf | March 17, 2016

Fun spring break reading

Fam,
As we are all feeling so ready to be on spring break already, here are some fun short articles to help us relax and get us thinking about the upcoming holiday (anthropologically of course). Have a good break and be safe!

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Beyond Ishtar: The Tradition of Eggs at Easter
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/beyond-ishtar-the-tradition-of-eggs-at-easter/

You Are What You Eat: Unraveling the Truth in Food Records
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/you-are-what-you-eat-unraveling-the-truth-in-food-records/

Food and Eating: An Anthropological Perspective
http://www.sirc.org/publik/food_and_eating_11.html

The Obligation of Gifts
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/the-obligation-of-gifts/

It’s True: We’re Probably All a Little Irish—Especially in the Caribbean
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/it-8217-s-true-we-8217-re-probably-all-a-little-irish-mdash-especially-in-the-caribbean/

Whose time are we celebrating for the New Year?http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/whose-time-are-we-celebrating-for-the-new-year/

You can find more of these articles on Anthropology in practice. Topics vary from the “laughing-so-much-I-am-crying” emojis to why we stalk others on Facebook. In other words, this blog is a great way to procrastinate!
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/anthropology-in-practice/

 

Posted by: soanstolaf | March 15, 2016

SOAN in the news

Sociology and Anthropology are all around us, and fascinating new discoveries in these fields can lead us to understand more about our world and ourselves.  The following articles are just a few that show examples of applications of Sociology and Anthropology in History, Archaeology, Medicine, personal relationships, immigration, and media consumption.

The Sociology of Selfies
Are selfies just expressions of vanity and narcissism, or are they something more?  In this article, sociologists explain the selfie through the lens of identity construction and mass media.  The articles following it continue the debate and provide insight into the idea of the loss of control over our identity once we share that selfie with the Internet, and they also look at the sociology of consumption.
http://sociology.about.com/od/Ask-a-Sociologist/fl/Why-We-Selfie.htm

Girl Stabbed to Death for Saying No to Prom Suitor
This article applies sociological perspectives on gender and specifically constructions of masculinity to the age-old problem of gendered violence. It looks at how masculinity is developed and different ways it may play out in real situations, and what can go wrong when it is expressed in unhealthy ways.  The articles following it on the same page are also related to gender and constructions of masculinity and femininity.
http://sociology.about.com/od/Current-Events-in-Sociological-Context/fl/Girl-Stabbed-to-Death-for-Saying-No-to-Prom-Suitor.htm

Why They Come: The Sociology of Child Immigration
Sociologists look at child immigration through the lens of violence, poverty, capitalism, and globalization.
http://sociology.about.com/od/Current-Events-in-Sociological-Context/fl/Why-They-Come.htm

New Appreciation for Human Microbiome Leads to Greater Understanding of Human Health
Anthropologists are currently studying both the ancient and modern human microbiome (combined genetic material of all the microorganisms in a specific environment) and the role it plays in human health and disease. By applying gene-sequencing technologies to ancient human microbiomes, as well as to contemporary microbiomes in traditional and industrialized societies, researchers are advancing the understanding of the evolutionary history of our microbial self and its impact on human health today.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160214201147.htm

Identity Unearthed: How Excavations in Sudan Reveal the Transformation Egyptian, Nubian Culture
An anthropologist writes about excavations in Sudan that show evidence of the development of transformation Egyptian and Nubian culture. In a middle-class tomb east of the Nile River in what used to be Upper Nubia, a woman offers a glimpse of how two civilizations melded together. Her tomb was Egyptian, but she was buried in the Nubian style. What does this mean for the blending and sharing of cultural artifacts, rituals, and ideals in this time and place?https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160301131316.htm

Internal Dissension Cited as Reason for Cahokia’s Dissolution
Cahokia, located in Illinois near the Mississippi River, is one of the (arguably) most sophisticated prehistoric Native American civilizations and is now a frequently visited historical site. Anthropological and archaeological researchers have presented a new analysis of factors relating to internal divisions that they believe led to Cahokia’s demise.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160223132725.htm

 Easter Island not Destroyed by War, Analysis of ‘Spear Points’ Shows
A new analysis of artifacts found on what we know today to be Easter Island in Chile reveal that these objects were likely general purpose tools, rather than objects used as spear points and other tools of warfare.  This provides evidence contrary to the widely held belief that the ancient civilization was destroyed by warfare.
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160216090117.htm

Posted by: soanstolaf | March 6, 2016

A lecture on Egypt since 2013

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Dr. Amr Hamzawy’s lecture blew my mind a little. I went into Viking Theatre with very base-level knowledge (or less than that) of the current Egyptian political arena, and I left Viking with a much more nuanced perspective of what has been happening there for the last 5 or so years, thanks to Dr. Hamzawy. I will try to share the impact of his presentation with you all, and undoubtedly fail, because he was so brilliant, but here we go.

He began by bringing us back to 2011 when the Egyptians rediscovered the power of the street in peaceful protests—they started leveraging this domain to make concrete demands for the ending of human rights violations, for transparency, for free and constitutional voting. And it worked—the former autocratic ruler was removed from power. Shouldn’t everything have moved forward then?

Why has Egypt been backsliding into an autocratic rule? Sure, 20% of the population lives in poverty, they have a 40% literacy rate, there’s a huge gap between the rich and the poor, and the government is unstable/controlled by the military. However, Hamzawy argued that one must go deeper than blaming the structural trends and the fact that Egypt has really become a “republic of generals”—which are both valid causes for this failure. In his attempt to answer the question “why has Egypt failed to democratize” he presented an extremely compelling argument for “homegrown causes” as root issues for this collapse of democratization.

Hamzawy identified 5 root causes that explain why Egypt has failed to democratize, many of them being mistakes within those who were fighting for democracy in the first place. I will try my best to explain these clearly and concisely, and I hope that I caught the gist of Hamzawy’s super nuanced, thought-out arguments.

Root Cause #1: The “civil elites” failed to define/design a path to democracy. While they were fighting for clear, concrete demands, they didn’t set a plan in place to implement after performing the coup. When the military has been established as the ruling power of Egypt, and the people who are leading the revolution don’t have a plan for successful transition or compromise, the transition isn’t going to succeed to the extent to which they desired it to.

Root Cause #2: Democratical political actors got caught up in ideological debates. The protests pre-revolution were not ideological, but after Mubarak stepped down, the public space became a platform to talk about the Islamic, Egyptian identity, and how Christians fit into this picture. Once again, they ignored laying down a path to democracy and they did not sit down with the military generals to hash it out.

Root Cause #3: A socioeconomic issue: the urban/rural divide. In 2011/12, the political actors failed to reach out into rural areas (where 60% of the Egyptian population live) and gain their support. Thus, it was easy for the state to take over because it revitalized lines of loyalty with those rural Egyptians. There was definitely more to this point, you’ll have to forgive me for not completely catching it! There was something to do with the competition between the religious brotherhood and the state. Maybe if someone can speak to that in the comments that would be helpful!

Root Cause #4: Hamzawy discussed this idea of “transitional justice,” in which the young people were fighting for justice for the human rights violations committed in the past. However, there were no dates set for elections. Again this idea of “follow-through” was not present in the aftermath of the revolution. 2013 marked the beginning of an essentially fascist regime—mass killings everywhere, violation of human rights, etc. Ultimately, because nothing positive was happening, the young people ended up feeling (and still do) disenchanted and ended up walking away from the ballot box. So basically, this led to a battle between the state bureaucracy and the Muslim brotherhood, and no one is still being held accountable for human rights violations.

Root Cause #5: The privileges of the military are entrenched in the social fabric of the nation—to imagine that they would be willing to compromise without a clear path set in place was TOO DREAMY!

Okay, so that’s a lot of information, but I hope you gained at least a little bit of a better understanding of what is happening/has been happening in Egypt from 2011ish-on. Feel free to comment below!

Posted by: soanstolaf | February 26, 2016

Dr. Kapila on Darfur Genocide

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Dr. Mukesh Kapila

Dr. Mukesh Kapila spoke with vigor and a sense of urgency: “No genocide has been prevented in history. It is always too late.” Kapila speaks about genocide from personal experience, as he was the whistle-blower on the Sudanese genocide while he served as the United Nations resident coordinator for Sudan. Dr. Kapila spoke in front of a large crowd of Oles, faculty, and community members on Wednesday, February 24, as he shared his stories of and involvement with the Sudanese genocide. As a leader in post-conflict management, chair of Minority Rights Group International, a current professor of Global Health and Humanitarian Affairs at the University of Manchester, and many other illustrious titles, Dr. Kapila spoke with extensive knowledge on why genocide is such a difficult thing to prevent.

As the Sudanese insurgencies began in 2003, Dr. Kapila saw the ethnic cleansing that was taking place. Although he was not allowed into the country, he flew over Sudan several times and saw that targeted villages were being burnt to the ground all over Sudan. After confronting the Sudanese government about the ongoing conflicts, he was told that it was not the government’s doing. Dr. Kapila then sought the aid of his superior, former Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan. Despite urgent and continued communications with him, Annan did not respond. Kapila was assured that the UN Security Council would not support any action in Darfur and that any attempt to do so would not be heard. Kapila realized that he could no longer seek the aid of the world’s governments. Instead, he had to turn to the people.

Kapila stated that the Sudanese genocide was the first genocide to take place in the 21st century, the century of social media and mobile phone cameras. It was these tools, along with a world-awakening interview with the BCC that Kapila utilized to inform the world of the genocide that was taking place. Within hours, the world’s attention was on Darfur. Annan was forced to become aware of this issue and send UN peacekeepers to address the conflict. By then, however, the genocide had already taken its toll. An estimated 300,000 had died from the combined effects of war, hunger, and disease.

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While Kapila was attempting to contact Annan, the latter was stationed in his office on the 38th floor of the United Nations headquarters in New York City. Kapila asked us to think about the view from his 38th floor window. What would the people look like?

“What is the connection between Kofi’s view of the people from the 38th floor and the act of Hutus calling Tutsis “cockroaches” during the Rwandan genocide?” Dehumanization. The reason kind leaders are able to tolerate these injustices is because it gets easier to dehumanize their people,” he says. The distance from the people created by Annan’s office on the 38th floor is indicative of the separation between Annan’s position of power and his interaction with the people he serves. How can a leader fully hear, see, and understand the people referred to in the opening words of the United Nations Charter (“We The Peoples”) from the 38th floor of one of the most exclusive buildings in the country?  

Kapila went on to assert the importance of holding individuals accountable. In this case, he spoke about holding Annan, and other UN officials accountable for their inaction despite evidence that ethnic cleansing was taking place.

“Each and every day, we face our own mini Darfurs,” stated Kapila. “Those who stand by and do nothing are not dissimilar to those who pull the trigger.” It was this principle that Kapila called us to internalize. He challenged us to recognize that every decision is personal and individual. It does not matter how large or complex an organization is. It is important to continue asking questions and asking who should be held accountable for injustices, rather than chalking actions to the complexity of a structure or organization.

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As a SOAN major, I found this message to be very powerful. The major often focuses on the complexity of large social structures and organizations and encourages us to look for the larger picture. But perhaps Dr. Kapila makes a good point in urging us to pay attention to the individual cogs within these great organizations, such as the UN. Although there were problematic aspects of Kapila’s lecture, one being his self-praise, I believe SOAN majors can learn a lot from Kapila’s words, as he urges us to see the Darfur conflict within our own lives. As educated people, equipped with the critical thinking skills our major provides us, let us critically look at our daily lives to see the kinds of inaction we see around us. Let us hold ourselves, as well as others, accountable for too easily believing that nothing can be done to solve a problem of complexity. For it is that inactive thinking, as Kapila would assert, that leads the masses to inaction in instances of genocide.

 

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